Indian Political System work:-  Every country has different political system Indian Political System works on the basis of one adult-man/ woman, one -vote, with universal franchise , in a Multi-Party political  system






 How Indian political system work
Indian political system work
Img source :- indiaonline.in

Features of Indian Political System :-

1. Indian political system is democratic.
2. Indian political system is dominated by ethics. 
3. Indian political system has single party dominance .
4. Political parties are based on religion and language ( Hindu mahasabha , Ram rajya parishad , Muslim league , Shiv sena , Akali dal , DMK, AIMIM.)
5. Cast , Communalism and Factionalism in Indian Political system  ( SC’s, ST’s, OBC, Yadav ,Jaat , Brahmin , Sia ,Sunni etc.)
6. Regionalism  as a factor in Indian political system
Corruption in Indian political System
7. Political defence in Indian political system


 Indian Political System work 


India is a federal country so it follows a dual political  system where the authoritative powers rest in the hands of both center as well as states.

so the basic constitution is divided into three parts- LEGISLATURE(where the regulations,bills,policies etc..are passed), EXECUTIVE-(it implements the policies and laws made by the legislature and administers), JUDICIARY( justice is served when violated).



1. CENTRAL GOVERNMENT- bicameral legislature

RAJYA SABHA (upper house)
LOK SABHA (lower house)

2. STATE GOVERNMENT

LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY / VIDHAN SABHA
LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL / VIDHAN PARISHAD

3. LOCAL GOVERNMENT

MUNICIPALITY (urban areas)
PANCHAYATH RAJ (rural areas)


1. Local government :-

 Municipality (urban areas) is subdivided into

a) Municipal corporation
b) Municipal council.
c) Nagar councils.


i. Municipal corporation


City level with the population of over 1 million(10 lakhs) elections are held once in every 5 years under the supervision of “state election commission” .
The Municipal Corporation committee consists of mayor, municipal commissioner, councilors.The city is divided into wards.People from their respective ward elect the councilors.Now all the elected councilors from all the wards elects the “Mayor” among themselves who become the head of the corporation.Unlike Mayor and councilors ,the Municipal commissioner is appointed by the state government( mostly from the civil services department) to act as the administrative head for the municipal corporation.


ii. Municipal council  / NAGAR PALIKA


 Town level with the population 25 thousand to 1 lakh elections are held for the term of 5 years.

the election process is the same as the municipal corporation but here unlike mayor it is headed by the president. It has members from various departments like engineers , education, sanitation etc.. to handle their respective administration affairs.



iii. NAGAR PANCHAYAT


Lower town level with the population between 10 thousand to 25 thousand elections are held for the term of 5 years. The nagar panchayat committee has the chairman as the head and the ward members who administers.


 PANCHAYAT RAJ / LOCAL RURAL GOVERNMENT

a) Grama panchayat

b) Mandal panchayat/block council

c) Zilla parishad/ district council.



 How Indian political system work

 Indian political system work 
img source :-Google


i. Grama panchayat


It is the lowest level of panchayat raj with the population of 1k to 10k.Each village is divided into wards. Each ward is headed by the”panchayat member”(a.k.a panch) who is directly elected by the villagers of the respective wards.

Now the head of all the panchayat members is the “sarpanch”. He has the term of 5 years.

the state government appoints the secretary for the grama panchayat to oversee the activities.


ii. MANDAL /TALUKA PANCHAYAT/ PANCHAYAT SAMITI/ BLOCK COUNCIL


It takes the control of group of grama panchayats It acts as a link between grama panchayat and zilla parishad.The people directly elect the members of mandal panchayat. Approximately for every 15000 members (together called as constituency) one representative is elected.All these representatives elects their chairman among themselves.
So the head of the mandal panchayat is the Tahasildhar / chairman whose term is 5 years.


iii.  ZILLA PARISHAD / DISTRICT COUNCIL


Group of block councils/ panchayat samithi comes under one zilla parishad. ZPTC members are elected sometimes directly , sometimes indirectly as per the acts of that particular state.

Mostly it is headed by chairman followed by vice chairman But the central administrator is the IAS officer.some districts don’t even have the district councils.



 Indian Political System work 




2. State government :-




A.  LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY / VIDHAN SABHA


It is the sole body for 22 states and 3 union teritories. For the rest it is the lower house and legislative assembly acts as a upper house.Every state is divided into constituencies depending on the population.For every constituency, representatives of different parties stand and people elect one.To win the election the party needs to win more than 50% of constituencies.


Now the elected representatives of each constituency becomes the MLA . So technically the ruling party has the highest number of MLAs .
MLAs of the leading party choose the leader. He is the “Chief Minister” of the state. Now the CM appoints the Ministers from the various departments.( Health, Education,Sports etc)
“The Governor” - head of the state is appointed by the central government. Some MLAs has the dual role where they act as the department ministers also.
So, the legislative assembly is formed where both the ruling and opposition parties meet and have debates on various issues. “The speaker” regulates the debates and proceedings.
The term of the legislative assembly is 5 years.




B. LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL

Its act as the upper house for the states which has the bicameral legislature. currently Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, karnataka, Bihar, Uttar Pradeh, Maharastra has legislative counil composition: 1/3 rd -MlAs, 1/3rd -members of municipalities, 1/12th- teachers, 1/12th- graduates, 1/6th - nominated by the governor who has excelled in arts, science etc..
overall size should not exceed 1/3rd of the legislative assembly. Chairman will be the speaker of the meetings. The term of the council is for 6 years.

3.  CENTRAL GOVERNMENT

i. LOK SABHA ( the lower house)


Each state and union territory is divided into territorial constituencies in such a way that the ratio of number and population is same across the whole country. Each parlimentary constituency is equal to one seat in the lok sabha.Before the elections, the election commission announces what all constituencies from the states are being considered for the elections and also the dates for the election of those constituencies will be announced.the maximum strength will be 550 out of which 530 for states, 13 for the union territories, 2 are the Anglo Indians appointed by the president. This number not necessarily be the same all the time. it varies but the upper limit is fixed.So direct elections are held where people elects their desired representative of their constituency who got the party ticket. Party that wins the maximum number of constituencies make up the most MP seats and becomes the ruling party. Sometimes when there is a tie coalition happens.

Now the MPs can choose their leader as the “Prime Minister”. and hence the President finally appoints the PM as per their decision.These people who are elected by the entire country are the in charge for the creating or amending laws that will affect the country as a whole.“Money Bills” will only be introduced in the Lok sabha not the Rajya sabha. If the Lok sabha clears the bill then it is sent to the rajya sabha. Rajya sabha has the power only to suggest the amendments but not to order for which lok sabha can ignore too.

Incase of a deadlock in opinion in any of the matters/ bills other than money bill, a joint session is held where both lok sabha and rajya sabha members assemble and after clearing all the talks final voting will be held and the act or amendment will be decided by the majority opinion.Technically lok sabha decisions will be finalized as they have more number of seats compared to rajya sabha. Interestingly Lok sabha can pass motion of no confidence on the union cabinet and prime minister. then they both has to resign. but if the prime minister can advise President to dissolve the lok sabha and if the President feels right (or thinks lok sabha cant elect capable new prime minister) he dissolves the lok sabha also and conducts re elections.Lok sabha can pass “amendment bills, impeach president, pass motion to impeach the judges of supreme/ high court, initiate resolutions or emergency war “ . for all these at least 2/3rd majority of lok sabha should accept.
The term of lok sabha is 5 years from the date of its first appointed meeting.




 How Indian political system work

 Indian Parliament 
img source :- indiatoday.in


ii. RAJYA SABHA



It is the upper house and permanent body which cannot be subjected to dissolution.It has totally 250 members out of which 238 are the representatives of states and union territories, 12 members are nominated by the president from the various fields.Each state has certain number of seats reserved based on the population of that state.

Those 238 members are elected indirectly ie. based on proportional voting mechanism of a single vote for each vidhana sabha(ie..vidhana sabha elects their representative for the alloted seat in rajya sabha).1/3rd members of rajya sabha will be retired every year therefore for every 6 years we can have new rajya sabha. Bypolls will be held if there is any vacant seat( death or resignation).Rajya sabha has the right to pass the provision that will allow the parliament to legislate on the issue of any of the state.It empowers the parliment to create the all india services if necessary to create one common to union or state.they can also impeach the President, judges, emergency war can also be declared. For all of which it needs 2/3rd of the majority.PRIME MINISTER - head of the union legislative branch.PRESIDENT Head of the legislative, executive, judiciary.he vests his power in the hands of union cabinetHe is elected by the members of Lok sabha, Rajya sabha, vidhana sabha based on proportional representation.Any bill after the approval of the President can become a law. He can ammend the bill if necessary by sending it to the houses but only once.If they dont make any changes then he has no right to dismiss. he is obliged to sign.Money bill was bought into the lok sabha with his involvement so there is no point in rejecting it.

President formally introduces the annual budget though finance minister plays a majr role behind the scene.He officially appoints the prime minister and the cabinet of ministers and other entities. Mostly he is the ceremonial head, inaugurates the parliament every year.
Presidential rule takes place sometimes in the absence of chief minister though he appoints few ministers who works under his supervision.


so, this is how overall Indian political system work 



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